Georgia Tsirimokou, et al., "Experimental behavior evaluation of series and parallel connected constant phase elements". AEU-International Journal of Electronics and Communications, 74, 2017, 5.
Fractional-order capacitors are the core building blocks for implementing fractional-order circuits. Due to the absence of their commercial availability, they can be approximated through appropriately configured passive or active integer-order element topologies. Such a topology, constructed using Operational Transconductance Amplifiers (OTAs) and capacitors has been implemented in monolithic form through the AMS 0.35 μm CMOS process, and the fabricated chips are employed here for the experimental evaluation of the behavior of networks constructed from fractional-order capacitors connected in series or in parallel.