Aslihan Kartci, et al., " Series-, parallel-, and inter-connection of solid-state arbitrary fractional-order capacitors: theoretical study and experimental verification". IEEE Access, 6, 2018, 10933.
Abstract: In this paper, general analytical formulas are introduced for the determination of equivalent impedance, magnitude, and phase, i.e., order, for n arbitrary fractional-order capacitors (FoCs) connected in series, parallel, and their interconnection. The approach presented helps to evaluate these relevant quantities in the fractional domain, since the order of each element has a significant effect on the impedance of each FoC and their equivalent capacitance cannot be considered. Three types of solid-state fractional-order passive capacitors of different orders, using ferroelectric polymer and reduced graphene oxide-percolated P(VDF-TrFE-CFE) composite structures, are fabricated and characterized. Using an impedance analyzer, the behavior of the devices was found to be stable in the frequency range 0.2 - 20 MHz, with a phase angle deviation of ±4°. Multiple numerical and experimental case studies are given, in particular for two and three connected FoCs. The fundamental issues of the measurement units of the FoCs connected in series and parallel are derived. A MATLAB open-access source code is given in the Appendix for easy calculation of the equivalent FoC magnitude and phase. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical assumptions.